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Evaluation of fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction: A cross-sectional study

Padmaja Rajey Desai, Sunita Milind Tiwale, Pandian Murugesan Devar, Rajey M Desai.

Abstract
Background: Doppler velocimetry studies of placental and fetal circulation can provide important information regarding fetal well-being providing an opportunity to improve fetal outcome.

Aims and Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate the role of color Doppler velocimetry of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity waveforms, systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies in II and III trimesters.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The control and study groups were studied in II and III trimesters. They were first subjected to ultrasonography biometry and then to MCA Doppler sonography. The statistical analysis was performed by “unpaired” and “paired” t-test.

Results: In both control and study groups, the values of S/D ratio, PI, and RI in MCA decline during II to III trimester. The values were lower in the study group as compared to the control group. Thus that the present study predicts were; (a) lower PI values were suggestive of fetal hypoxia, (b) The lower values are due to vasodilatation due to hypoxia to supply more blood to the brain to protect it from the damaging effects of hypoxia. Thus, the brain is spared from damage.

Conclusion: Doppler can be considered as one of the important non-invasive techniques to assess the fetomaternal and uteroplacental circulations. The MCA indices were valuable for predicting the outcome of IUGR pregnancies.

Key words: Fetal Growth Restriction; Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Sonography; Perinatal Outcome



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