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Anti-inflammatory activity and toxicological effect of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen.) root bark extract in albino rats

Idayat T Gbadamosi, Akindele Oluwatosin Adeyi, A. Agbatutu.

Abstract
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential and toxicological effect of Securidaca longepedunculata root bark methanol extract in formalin-induced paw oedema in albino rats. Thirty-five male albino rats divided into 7 groups of five rats each (groups 1-7) were used for the study. Paw oedema was induced in groups 1-5 by injection of 0.1ml of 2% formalin in the sub planter region of left hind paw. Three of the induced groups (1-3) were treated with 100, 200 and 300mg/kg of the 70% methanol extract of S. longepedunculata respectively. The fourth group was treated with indomethacin while the fifth group was the positive control. Groups 6 and 7 served as the drug and normal control respectively. Treatment with various doses of S. longepedunculata resulted in marked decrease of paw oedema after the six days of treatment. Rats treated with 100 and 300mg/kg of the extract had the highest (93.01%) and least (77.25%) percentage inhibition respectively. Dose-dependent increase in levels of AST, ALT and GGT in rats treated with the extract coupled with mild hepatocellular vacuolations observed in the histology of the liver was indicative of liver impairment. Elevated level of white blood cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes in the treated groups are suggestive of their roles in combating inflammation. The root extract of S. longepedunculata showed anti-inflammatory activity in rats and can therefore be a good alternative drug in the management of inflammatory diseases.

Key words: Anti-inflammatory, toxicological effect, Securidaca longepedunculata, paw oedema, albino rats



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