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Review Article

Biomed Res Ther. 2017; 4(3): 1210-1227

Molecular basis of glaucoma and its therapeutical analysis in Pakistan: an overview

Luqman Khan, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Farhat Jabeen, Basharat Hussain.


The human eye is an organ of vision. It plays a prime role in life, gives us the sense of sight, and enables to understand about the world around us. Visualization and interpretation of colors, shapes and dimensions of numerous objects is made possible by eye. Inherited eye diseases comprise 1/3 of all reported human genetic disorders. This review will focus on Glaucoma which comprises a predictable visual illnesses concerning optic nerve deterioration and if remains without any cure can result in failure in eyesight. The optical nerve injure comprises deterioration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Glaucoma represents a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. These neuropathies gradually reduce vision without warning and often without symptoms. Different forms of glaucoma share some common clinical manifestations that usually include specific abnormal appearance of the optic nerve head, characteristic loss of visual field and chronic painless progression. Glaucoma is a progressive optical neuropathy considered by optical disc changes, nerve fiber film break, and visual field defects. Present-day treatment preferences predominantly targeting at reducing IOP by making use of pharmaceutical means, laser treatment and surgical procedure. Developed conducts target neuroprotection with vaccines, the hang-up of NO synthesis and apoptosis. Attaining a better appreciative of the pathogenesis can support in the improvement of novel handling options and, perhaps, even a remedy for glaucoma. There are more than 1.8million glaucoma patients in Pakistan and almost half of them have already lost their eyesight, permanently, due to delay in diagnosis and treatment. About 90% population in the country has no awareness about this disease, resultantly; more and more people are becoming permanently blind in Pakistan due to untreated glaucoma.

Key words: Eye, glaucoma, diagnosis, treatment, Pakistan

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