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Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Euphorbia thymifolia L. extracts on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats

Ghanshyam R Parmar, Kilambi Pundarikakshudu, Ramchandran Balaraman.


Traditionally, the genus Euphorbia is unique in that it contain diverse chemical entities with a lot of structural variation sources used to treat hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the current study is to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of the aqueous and methanol extract of Euphorbia thymifolia (ET) aerial parts in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg STZ, 15 min. after the i.p. administration of 110 mg/kg NA. The diabetic rats were treated with aqueous and methanol extract from ET (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o., respectively) for 28 days. Various parameters were studied included fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin, HbA1c, serum lipids, serum creatinine, urea, liver glycogen, and total protein. These EUT extracts were produced significant (P < 0.05) fall in fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, while serum insulin level and liver glycogen were significantly (P < 0.05) increased as compared to diabetic rats. However, serum total protein, creatinine and urea level significantly (P < 0.001) decreased as compared to diabetic untreated rats. The extracts also exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect as evident from fall in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins and increase high-density lipoproteins level. The histopathological studies of the pancreas in extract treated diabetic groups revealed almost normal appearance. This study supports the traditional assertions on E. thymifolia aerial parts.

Key words: Euphorbia thymifolia, streptozotocin-nicotinamide, plasma insulin, HbA1c, lipid profile.

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