Sustainability in livestock production system is mostly affected by climate change. Climate change affects various factors associated with production, reproduction, heath and adaptability of the animals. Dairy sector is more susceptible to climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used as index to measurement of thermal stress in animals. Environmental stress has adverse effects on health status of dairy animals and decreases the milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cows resulting in huge economic losses. Global climate change is expected to alter temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric carbon dioxide. The dairy sector is a more susceptible to climate change and global warming where it is mostly affected by the temperature and humidity such as temperature humidity index (THI). Combined effect of high ambient temperature and high humidity results adverse effect on reproductive performance of farm animals. The management strategies viz., microclimatic modification, nutritional management, feeding strategies and artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly followed to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in dairy animals.
Heat Stress, Production, Reproduction, Health and Temperature Humidity Index