Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smokingSalman Shafi Siddiqui, Mohd. Amir, Tanu Aggarwal, Bhawana Sharma, Sudha Agarwal.
Background: UP is one of the biggest cultivators of tobacco. Rules of tobacco consumption are almost absent in the state. The state has almost 34% of young male smokers.
Aims and Objectives: The idea of creating awareness among cigarette smokers and promote deaddiction among youth the present study was conducted in Muzaffarnagar Medical College to assess the cardiovascular risks according to the degree of exposure, i.e., pack-years of smoking.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 male subjects were taken for the study after proper consent. Five groups were formed - controls (no smoking), Group 1; 010 pack-years of smoking, Group 2; 1120 pack-years of smoking, Group 3; 2130 pack-years of smoking, and Group 4; 3140 pack-years of smoking. Pack-years formula = (number of cigarettes smoked per day/20) × number of years smoked was used. Only cigarette smokers were used for the study after using exclusion criteria to rule out any confounding factor. Serum lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were estimated.
Results: As the degree of exposure is increasing, i.e. pack-years of smoking increases, the level of dyslipidemias is also becoming severe being highly significant P < 0.01** in 3140 pack-years of smoking. hsCRP is significantly increasing P < 0.05* in Group 2 and showing highly significant P < 0.01** increase in Groups 3 and 4.
Conclusion: Cardiovascular risks are increasing significantly as pack-years of smoking is increasing as indicated by dyslipidemias and hsCRP increase, means 2130 and 3140 pack-years are at higher risk as compared to 010 and 1120 pack-years.
Key words: Cigarette; Smokers; High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Tobacco; Cardiovascular risks; Lipid profile