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Reliability of neutrophilic nuclear appendages in morphological sex differentiation

Rashmi Verma, Manjula Adinarayan.

Background: The inactive X-chromosome in neutrophils appears in one of the three forms. They are drumsticks, racquet forms, and sessile nodules.

Objective: A correlative study based on the presence of “drumstick and other nuclear appendages” in polymorphonuclear neutrophils to determine the morphological sex.

Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight randomly selected blood smears (34 males and 34 females) were stained with Leishman’s stain. One hundred well-stained neutrophils were double-blindly studied in the tail-end of the smears and classified into four groups based on Kosenow’s formula as drumstick (Form A), sessile nodule (Form B), and other pedunculated nuclear projections such as tag and hooks (Form C).

Results: Significant correlation of neutrophilic nuclear appendage of Form A (P = 0.00001) and Form C (P = 0.00016) was obtained for females and males, respectively. Difference of A-C gives a positive value in females and a negative value in males.

Conclusion: Neutrophilic nuclear appendages which include true drumsticks, sessile nodules, and racket structures form a useful tool for morphological sex differentiation.

Key words: Neutrophils; Drumstick; Sessile Nodule; Morphological Sex; Non-specific Appendages

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Journal of Behavioral Health


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