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Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of central India

Shweta Sahai, Pranav Tyagi, Nikhil Shah.


Abstract

Background: According to International Diabetes Federation diabetes Atlas in India, 42.2 million people have prediabetes. Risk of development of diabetes in such people is high.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in urban areas of Gwalior and to find a relation between IFG and various anthropometric variables.

Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional community-based survey done on 1000 participants in city of Gwalior between June 2014 and October 2015. Fasting capillary blood glucose was determined using a glucometer after 8 h of fasting. Association between IFG and anthropometric parameters, total cholesterol, triglyceride, alcohol intake, and smoking was obtained.

Results: Out of 1000 participants screened, 229 (22.9%) had IFG; hence, prevalence was 22.9%. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), waist–to-hip ratio (WHR), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) of participants with IFG were 37.85 ± 3.23 years, 25.29 ± 2.60 kg/m2, 0.943 ± 0.05, and 108.83 ± 5.00 mg/dl, respectively. IFG was mostly observed in male population (69.86%), with non-vegetarian diet (68.56%) and population who had a family history of diabetes mellitus (74.67%). Out of 229 participants with IFG, 162 (70.74%) had BMI >23 kg/m2, 203 (88.64%) had raised WHR, 142 (62%) had raised total cholesterol level, 97 (42.35%) were alcoholic, and 126 (55.02%) were smokers. There was a significant difference in mean BMI (P = 0.001), WHR (P = 0.023), and FBG (P = 0.0001) in IFG population as compared to euglycemic population. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the prevalence of IFG was 22.9% with males showing a higher prevalence.

Conclusion: Participants with raised BMI, WHR, and non-vegetarian diet had higher incidence of IFG. Participants having IFG had raised total cholesterol and significantly raised triglyceride levels. No significant association was found between IFG and smoking/alcohol.

Key words: Impaired Fasting Glucose; Prevalence; Diabetes Mellitus; Body Mass Index; Euglycaemia






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