Objective: To investigate efficacy of remote ischaemic preconditioning on reducing kidney injury and myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Background: Ischaemic preconditioning of a remote organ reduces ischaemia-reperfusion injury of kidney and myocardium after CABG. Method: To reduce myocardial damage and kidney injury by applying Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning we recruited 100 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We applied three cycles of lower limb tourniquet, inflated its cuff for 5 minutes in study group or left un-inflated (sham or control group) before the procedure. The primary outcome was serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and troponin-I Levels at time 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Secondary outcomes were serum C-reactive protein, inotrope score, ventilation time and ICU stay. Datas were analyzed by MedCalc (MedCalc Software bvba, Acacialaan, Belgium). We compared the two group by student t test, chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The two groups were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, smoking habits, drug use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. This study showed a higher CRP level in study group comparing with control group (P=0.003), creatinine clearance was slightly higher in study group specially 24 h after procedure but was not statistically significant (p=0.11). Troponin-I level was significantly lower in study group (p=0.001). Conclusion: This study showed a lower Troponin-I level in study group which suggest a cardio-myocyte protective function of RIPC. It also showed slightly lower Creatinine clearance in control group, gap between two group increases significantly 24 hours after procedure which may suggest a potential kidney protection by RIPC. Serum CRP level was higher in study group. A multi-center randomized controlled trial with a longer time for creatinine clearance measurement may show the potential effectiveness of this non-invasive inexpensive intervention on reducing kidney injury after CABG.
Key words: Ischaemic preconditioning; Complications; Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.