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Comparative study of body mass index, hand grip strength, and handgrip endurance in healthy individuals

Dhananjaya J R, Veena H C, Mamatha B S, Sudarshan C R.


Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) and handgrip endurance (HGE) are the important parameters to assess the upper extremity muscular strength. Only a few previous studies have shown varying correlation between BMI, HGS and HGE.

Aims and Objectives: To record HGS and hand grip endurance (HGE) in healthy individual and to compare BMI with HGS and ET.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and one individuals were included in our study, comprising both males and females of age group 20-45 years. BMI was calculated using Quetelet index. Based on BMI, participants were then categorized into three groups as normal weight BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight BMI 24.9-29.9 kg/m2, and obese >30 kg/m2. HGS was measured using a handgrip dynamometer and maximum isometric tension, Tmax in kg was recorded. ET was measured by the time of onset of fatigue for 70% of the in Tmax and expressed in seconds.

Results: Our result shows that there was a significant correlation between HGE and overall BMI, with P = 0.001 which is highly significant. There was a highly significant difference in HGS between male and female groups, P < 0.0001. We also noted that BMI and HGS are negatively correlated among normal BMI male participants and weakly negatively correlated among obese males. In overweight females, the HGS and BMI were also weakly negatively correlated and had no correlation in normal and obese female participants. HGE was weakly negatively correlated among overweight and obese males.

Conclusion: There is correlation between BMI, HGS, and HGE. HGS and HGE depend on various factors such as age, sex, built, strength of muscle, arm span, and diet. A further study in a larger population is required with multiple factors taken into consideration.

Key words: Physical Fitness; Body Mass Index; Hand Grip Strength; Hand Grip Endurance; Overweight; Obesity

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