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A study of adherence pattern toward antihypertensive therapy (antihypertensive drugs, dietary habits, and physical activity) and certain factors affecting it

Pratiksha A Sutar, Hemangini K Shah.

Background: Adherence to antihypertensive treatment (pharmacological intervention and lifestyle modification) and related factors is an essential to hypertension (HTN)management and aids in planning intervention for its control.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the adherence pattern of hypertensives toward antihypertensive treatment and factors affecting it and assess the impact of such adherence on HTN control.

Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out at the outpatient department of medicine department at a tertiary hospital in Goa. Totally 213 patients with confirmed diagnosis of HTN and currently on antihypertensive treatment, selected through systematic randomized sampling, were interviewed using structured and clinically assessed questionnaire.

Results: Adherence to antihypertensive drugs, dietary approach to stop HTN (DASH)diet, and recommended physical activity was studied along with sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, addiction, body mass index, medication, and other factors. Nearly 64.79% were highly adherent toward the antihypertensive drug treatment while 30.52% and 4.69% showed moderate and low adherence, respectively. A significant association was noticed between the presence of comorbidities and drug adherence, wherein patients with comorbidities showed higher adherence. Nearly 23.94% patients were highly adherent toward the DASH diet, while 51.64% were moderately adherent although not significantly associated. Almost 68.08% showed moderate activity while only 10.83% indulged in vigorous activity. A significant association was noted with age, employment status, and number of medications prescribed in determining adherence to physical activity.

Conclusion: Presence of comorbidities, sex and age, number of antihypertensives, and employment status were seen to be associated with high adherence toward the treatment.

Key words: Antihypertensive Treatment; Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension Diet; Physical Activity

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