Newcastle disease (ND) outbreak even in the face of vaccination is a common problem in Nigeria. A survey was carried out between June, 2012 to February, 2013 to detect ND viruses in poultry and wild birds in 12 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kogi state, Nigeria. Oropharyngeal swabs from 710 poultry and cloacal swabs from 100 species in eight families of wild birds were tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with set of primers targeting the ND virus matrix protein with 60.5% swabs being positive. The prevalence of ND viruses was highest in live bird market with 62.5% and lowest in backyard farm with 57.7%, while based on species of birds, Swallow (Hirundo spp.) had the highest prevalence with 83.3% and zero in Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis). The Ļ2 value of the prevalence of ND viruses in contiguous areas A against contiguous areas B was significant (Ļ2 =6.59, pā¤ 0.01, OR = 4.10 at 95% CI = 1.34 12.28). The study revealed the circulation of ND viruses in poultry and wild birds in Kogi state. This is the first report of ND viruses in Hirundo spp and Swift (Apus spp) in Kogi state, Nigeria. There is need for sequencing of the F-protein of the ND viruses circulating in Kogi state to compare with already known strains in Nigeria. Vaccination against ND should be stepped up in backyard poultry and instituted in rural poultry for effective control.
Backyard poultry, Newcastle disease viruses, RT-PCR, Swallow and Swift, Wild birds