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Original Research

RMJ. 2016; 41(4): 432-436

Risk factors for refractive errors among school going childrens in Wah Cantonment, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Ambreen Ansar, Robina Mushtaq Rizvi, Muhammad Akhter Nawaz, Maheen Sana Khan, Waqas Ahmad.


Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with refractive error (RE) in school going children (8-16 years of age) of Wah Cantt.
Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Federal government schools of Wah Cantonment and included 170 Children of 8-16 years of age using convenient sampling. A structured Questionnaire was used to assess the risk factors associated with refractive errors. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 19.
Results: Out of 170 children, 45.89% were male and 54.11% female. Family history of 35% children was positive (mother in 14.1%, father in 14.1% and both in 7.6%). Refractive error was strongly associated with RE among parents (P=0.000, OR=4.8), RE among siblings (P=0.000, OR=6.72), children with poor dietary habits (P=0.000, OR=5.98 and the children with poor daily routine (P=0.000, OR=4.98). Children with good daily routine were 7.46 times less likely to exhibit RE. Parental status, dietary habits and daily routine added significantly to the model. Conclusion: The positive family history, near work, playing video games, and poor diet are important risk factors for RE among school going children in Wah Cantt. The physical outdoor activities are protective factor against the RE development in children.

Key words: Refractive error, myopia, genetics, nutrition.

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