Objective: The general objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effects on the quality of life among females of different age groups in a community.
Methods: The study involves the random selection of 450 subjects with the use of a cross sectional survey among three (3) different age groups of 13-20 years, 21-30 years and 30-44 years with the aid of structure questionnaire to obtain data.
Results: The result showed that more than half (54.7%) of age range 13-20 years female experienced severe dysmenorrhea, 36% experienced mildly severe pain while 9.3% had no severe pain. Among 21-30 years group, it was found that 53.7% experienced severe pain, 37% experienced mildly severe pain while 9.3% had no severe pain. Also, among 31-44 age range, 57.3% experienced severe dysmenorrhea, 33.3% had mildly severe pain and 6.7% had no severe pain. 54% of age 13-20 years females adopted pharmacological method of pain relievers, 19.3% used non-pharmacological method while 24.7% combined both methods. Among 21-30 years age group, 26.7% used pharmacological treatment, 50% uses non pharmacological method and only 21.3% used both method. Poor work satisfaction was found to be 54.7% among 13-20 years female respondents, 70.0% among 21-30 years and 60.0% among 30-44 years respondents. Also, the study showed that 70% of the respondents experienced nauseous feelings, 65.3% experienced difficulties in breathing and 56.0% experienced decreased physical activities.
Conclusion: The study concludes that socio-economic characteristics affect the prevalence and management of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea was shown to be more prevalent among females of younger ages and dysmenorrhea affects the quality of life among females of different age group. The effects manifested as: mood instabilities/emotional fluctuations (anger, aggression, joy, intense feeling of depression, irritability), reduction in academic performance (loss of concentration), and relationship with others are all affected by dysmenorrhea. This research shows that: lower BMI among ages 13-20 years and 21-30 years is directly associated with higher prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea. This indicates that the younger females suffer a higher risk of having dysmenorrhea than the older females.
Key words: mass index; dysmenorrhea; management; prevalence; physiological