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Raised inter-arm difference in blood pressure: Association with family history of hypertension, anthropometric parameters, and mean arterial blood pressure

Simmy Kurian, Roshni Paul Joseph, Manjula VD.


Background: Raised inter-arm difference (IAD) in blood pressure (BP) has been found to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Relation of raised IAD in BP with family history (FH) of hypertension, mean arterial BP (MABP), and anthropometric parameters are not well addressed in most of the previous studies.

Aims and Objectives: Primary objective was to find the association of raised IAD in BP with FH of hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The secondary objective was to find a correlation of raised IAD in BP with anthropometric parameters and MABP.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 284 medical students. BP was measured twice in each arm, using an automatic device (OMRON-Model-HEM-7130) that was calibrated according to the manufacturerÂ’s recommendations, and the values were averaged. IAD in BP is defined as the difference between average BP in the right arm and average BP in the left arm. FH of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease, and stroke were obtained using questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using standard equipment.

Results: Raised IAD in BP shows a statistically significant association with FH of hypertension (P = 0.002). Systolic IAD and diastolic IAD (DIAD) in BP in both males and females show positive correlations with right arm MABP. The results were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). DIAD in BP shows a statistically significant negative correlation with height in females (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: The presence of raised IAD in BP in patients with FH of hypertension warrants follow-up of these patients for disease development in future.

Key words: Cardio Vascular Diseases; Inter-arm Difference in Blood Pressure; Mean Arterial Blood Pressure; Peripheral Vascular Disease

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