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Review Article

IJMDC. 2023; 7(2): 349-356

The risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Sara Fahad Alhinti, Mohammad Fahad Alhinti, Nouf Marzuk Almutairi, Najla Marzuk Almutairi, Shatha Abdulaziz Al Ammar.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the increase in blood glucose level, with the first onset occurring during pregnancy. It has adverse outcomes and consequences on the mother and her fetus. Early diagnosis is necessary for early intervention to avoid further consequences. The identification of risk factors of GDM can help in the prediction of the mother who may develop diabetes during pregnancy and help for early diagnosis. This study aims to assess the risk factors for developing GDM by reviewing the previous studies investigating this subject. Scientific databases and websites, including PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Research gate, were explored to search for articles focused on our subject between 2018 and 2022. Many keywords were used for the search “GDM, Risk factors, Predictors, Association, Determinants.” The inclusion criteria were original English articles that reported the risk factors of GDM. A total of 2,980 articles were obtained, and only 15 articles were eligible for the inclusion criteria. The studies included a total number of 8,750 women. The included studies were from 12 different countries. The prevalence of GDM ranged between 5% and 35%. The risk factors were various and could be categorized as demographic, lifestyle, and other factors. There were various risk factors of GDM; the significant risk factors were higher body mass index, advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes, and multiparity.

Key words: Risk factors, predictors, GDM.

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