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Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi, Samson Olalekan Agboola, Ganiyu Oboh, Aline Augusti Boligon.

Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) and Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum) on two key enzymes [pancreatic lipase (PL) and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE)] involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high performance liquid chromatrography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). PL and ACE inhibitory effects; and DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using Spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: rutin, quercetin and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: rutin, quercitrin and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; and scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 μg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 μg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 μg/mL and IC50: 64.99 μg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum.

Key words: Obesity, hypertension, Ocimum species, pancreatic lipase, angiotensin I-converting enzyme, oxidative stress.

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