Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Egypt among humans and animals. Accurate estimates of disease prevalence are the cornerstone to apply and study the efficiency of any control program. In this study, a cross sectional study was carried out at one area of the Nile Delta with high livestock density; Kafrelsheikh district to study the disease prevalence in cattle and humans. A total of 149 milk samples randomly collected from cattle in this district were tested using ELISA against Brucella spp. antibodies. The prevalence of brucellosis was estimated at 7% (95% CI: 2.9 – 11.1%). The within village seroprevalence was ranged from 0% to 46.5%. About half of the visited villages had at least one infected cattle; 44.8% (95% CI: 13.0 % – 75.9%). There is a positive strong correlation (> 0.7) between the prevalence of brucellosis among sheep and cattle on village flock level (P < 0.02). In humans, the prevalence of Brucella was estimated at 1.25% (95%CI: 0% – 3.45%) in Kafrelsheikh district. Hospital-based incidence rate of human brucellosis at the governorate level was 0.54/100000 population; 0.75/100000 population for male and 0.38/100000 population for females. Half of the reported human cases with brucellosis in the governorate have no contact with animals, while 35.7% of them owned a seropositive animal in their households. Continuous integrated surveillance at human-animal interface, revising the current national control program in animals with suggestion of vaccination to be in place, restriction of raw milk marketing and enhancement of public health education regarding brucellosis risks are recommended measures to reduce brucellosis prevalence among human and animal population of the study region.
Brucellosis, Human-Animal interface, Control, Egypt