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Nig. Vet. J.. 2016; 37(4): -


RENAL FAILURE: RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE, MORPHOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY AND AETIOLOGY IN LOCAL AND EXOTIC BREEDS OF DOG IN LAGOS AND OGUN STATES WITHIN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

FAKILAHYEL MUSA MSHELBWALA, OLUSOLA LAWRENCE AJAYI, ADENIYI ADEKUNLE ADEBIYI, MOSHOOD OLAJIRE OLANIYI, OLATUNBOSUN SAMUEL OMOTAINSE, OLUWADAMILOLA SAMUEL OMOTAINSE, MORENIKEJI TEMITOPE OLUWABI, OLUBUSAYO ESTHER OJEBIYI,KADIRI AMINA KINTA FAKILAHYEL, STEPHEN OWARIORO AKPAVIE.

Abstract
The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, between 2012 and 2015. The prevalences of renal failure were determined by calculating the percentage of occurrence among dog carcasses that were submitted for postmortem within the period. Formalinized tissue samples of the kidney collected at postmortem during the period were processed and stained with Haematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Leptospira organisms were demonstrated in the renal tubules using Warty and Starry stains. The overall prevalence of glomerulonephritis was 22.81%. Annual prevalence varied from 15% in 2013 to 33.3% in 2014. Age-specific prevalence was highest (10.53%) among older dogs between the ages of 6 years and above. There was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the prevalence in male and female dogs. Breed-specific prevalence varied from zero prevalence among the local breed to 50% prevalence among Rottweiler cross. Grossly, extra-renal lesions include ulcerative dermatitis and the mucous membrane of the buccal cavity was jaundiced and had ulcers in 57% of the cases. In acute cases, the kidneys were swollen and pale in 60% of the cases. Whereas in chronic cases, the kidneys were pale, shrunkened, and the cortexes were rough and pitted with the capsules adherent to the cortical surfaces in 80% of the cases. Tweenty eight percent showed either left or right smaller kidney with calculi of variable sizes in the pelvis. Microscopically, in the acute cases, the kidneys showed moderate necrosis of tubular epithelial cells and infiltration by lymphocytes and macrophages in the interstitium while in the chronic cases; the tubules are atrophied in 27%. There is protein leak into the Bowmans space in 60%. The renal interstitium showed severe fibroplasia and the lumen of the collecting ducts contained proteinecious cast. The interstitium is severely infiltrated by lymphocytes and plasma cells in 67% cases. Aetiologic agent associated with the condition included leptospira species, escherichia coli, among others.The prevalence of renal failure among exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States was significantly high and the gross and histopathological lesions correlated well.

Key words: Postmortem, Renal failure, nephritis, Pathology, Dog



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