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Original Article

IMJ. 2016; 8(1): 32-38



OBJECTIVES: To establish the baseline levels of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mg, Pb and Cd) in whole blood of normal subjects and its
correlation with age and sex as well as in hypertensive subjects.
STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study.
PLACE AND DURATION: The study was conducted from 1st March 2014 to 15th July 2015 and study was carried out at Pakistan
Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad in collaboration with Federal Govt Services Hospital Islamabad.
METHODOLOGY: A simple random sampling was done for 445 volunteered normal subjects donating blood in blood bank Federal
Govt Services Hospital Islamabad. Similarly 252 hypertensive subjects' whole blood samples were collected from cardiology out
patient department of above mentioned hospital. Data was collected from all volunteered normal subjects as well as hypertensive
subjects irrespective of age and gender. All the blood samples were analyzed for trace metals Cu, Zn, Mg, Pb and Cd concentration by
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and whole blood of normal as well as hypertensive subjects with respect to age and sex was
evaluated. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17. The concentration obtained for Cu, Zn, Mg, Pb and Cd in 445 whole blood samples of
normal subjects including 230 males and 215 females of 23-62 ages was analyzed using various statistical tools to establish some
patterns and correlations.
RESULTS: In this study 252 whole blood samples of hypertensive subject of which Males 135(53.57%) and Females 117(46.43%).The
mean concentrate of Cu 0.5 - 2.9 mg L - 1, Zn 3.5 - 12.3 mg L - 1, Mg 17.3 - 39.8 mg L - 1 , Pb
201-499 ug L -1 and Cd7.5-16.6 ug L -1, in Males hypertensive subjects 135 (53.57%) while mean Concentration of Cu 0.4 - 2.3 mg L - 1,
Zn 2.9 - 10.5 mg L - 1, Mg 9.3 - 30.3 mg L - 1 , Pb 152-421 ug L -1 and Cd 6.1-13.6 ug L -1 in Females hypertensive subjects 117 (46.43%).
CONCLUSION: Concentration of trace metals baseline (Cu, Zn, Mg, Pb and Cd) of normal subjects were assessed in area of study and
found higher level trace metals with the advancing age. Males adults have higher levels of trace metals than females' adults. The
deficiency of Magnesium and the excess of Pb levels in whole blood in hypertensive subjects and is one of the risk factor in
development of hypertension.

Key words: Hypertension, Trace Metals, Analytical Technique Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Whole Blood

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