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Sokoto J. Vet. Sci.. 2019; 17(3): 30-34


Christiana Ibironke Odita, Ishaya Sini Tekki, Davou Gyang Moses, Joshua Israel Barde, Kingsley Okoh Egwu, Stella Ejura Idachaba, James Saidu Ahmed, Victoria Isioma Ifende, Olabisi Makanju, Dominic Aoadona Ugbe, Ponfa Nden Zhakom, Emmanuel Nzekwe, Nimrod Watsamanda, Grace Okpala, Yakubu Dashe, Chika Nwosuh, Philip Ademola Okewole, David Shamaki.


Domestic dog (Canis familiaris), a highly domesticated and well-known companion of man, is the main reservoir host of rabies virus and source of infection with the disease rabies to humans in 95% cases in Africa. WHO recommends that annual vaccination coverage of dog populations should be 70% and above for effective control of rabies. However, vaccination coverage of dogs is very low in most African countries, where the global burden of the disease is highest next to Asia. In Nigeria, records show that most cases of dog-bite and rabies occur in plateau state, where majority of dog owners do not take vaccination of their dogs seriously. Passive surveillance data on vaccination profile of dogs in Jos South Local Government Area (LGA), were retrieved from records of cases of suspect rabid dogs presented to the National Veterinary research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Nigeria, for routine confirmatory diagnosis from 2011 to 2016. Active surveillance field data on demography of owned domestic dogs were also obtained by administration of structured questionnaires to randomly sampled dog owners in the LGA in November 2016. The vaccination coverage were 4.9% and 19.7% for passive and active surveillance respectively. Although average vaccination coverage was estimated as 12.35%, the true population vaccination coverage could be between 12% and 18%, (95% CI.). The P-value (0.000) for alternative hypothesis of an association between the surveillance methods and the true vaccination coverage of dog populations in the study was significant. Consequently, evaluation of regular vaccination by active surveillance is key to achieving the recommended vaccination coverage of 70% and above. Dog vaccination coverage in the study area was grossly inadequate to achieving effective control of rabies; this alarming situation requires urgent intervention by governmentsÂ’, NGOs and other concerned stakeholders.

Key words: Rabies; Domestic Dog; Vaccination; Jos South LGA

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