The possible protective effects of the most potent fraction of Solanum erianthum ethanol leaf extract on lead-induced toxicity in adult wistar rats were investigated. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were determined using standard procedures. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies were carried out. The blood samples, liver, and kidney were collected for the estimation of biochemical and organ parameters, and histomorphological studies. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antioxidant activities and high membrane stabilizing potentials when compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Significant elevations were observed in plasma albumin, creatinine and urea levels in group treated with lead only. The activities of plasma ALT and AST were significantly increased in group treated with lead alone. Treatment with ethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased (< 0.05) the elevated ALT, AST, urea and creatinine levels. The histology evidence showed progressive degeneration of the liver and kidney tissues in lead treated groups while the administration of S. erianthum showed appreciable degrees of protection to both the liver and kidney. The study concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of S. erianthum has protective effects against lead-induced toxicity in adult Wistar rats.
Keywords: Lead-induced toxicity, Solanum erianthum, ethyl acetate fraction, acute toxicity, sub-chronic toxicity, histology