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Original Research



Radiological evaluation of various types of primary bronchogenic carcinoma: a study of 65 cases

Nipa Hathila, Divyesh Goswami.




Abstract

Background: Orderly approach to diagnosis and staging based on the knowledge of lung cancer requires selection of treatment for either potential cure or optional palliation of individual patient. A radiological imaging is extremely valuable and indispensable when it comes to diagnosis and staging of primary bronchogenic carcinoma.

Objective: To study the imaging features on various radiological and imaging techniques in various types of primary bronchogenic carcinoma and to differentiate bronchogenic carcinoma from other lung masses.

Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Ethical committee permission was taken before enrollment of the patients in the study. Data of participants regarding demographics, history of smoking habit, clinical presentation, histopathological type, radiographic findings on chest radiograph, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scan, and, if required, magnetic resonance imaging were recorded in detail. The method of diagnosis and clinical stage of the disease were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics of the collected data.

Result: The maximum prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma was seen between 60–69 years of age (50.76%) with male predominance (90.76%). About 92.31% patients showed positive smoking history. Thirty-three patients (50.76%) showed primary tumor size in lung, which was > 4 cm size. All masses (100%) showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Other common findings by CT scan were loss of patency of bronchus (41.53%), hilar enlargement (38.46%), enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (35.38%), mediastinal invasion (24.61%), rib, chest wall, and plural invasion (20%), pleural effusion (15.38%), calcification (13.84%), necrosis (10.76%), cavitation (12.3%), and superior vena cava compression (10.76%).

Conclusion: The evaluation of a patient with known or suspected bronchogenic carcinoma requires the detection and characterization of the lesions involving the lungs, hila, mediastinum, pleura, chest wall, and upper abdomen. Various radiological imaging techniques play a dominant role in diagnosis and proper staging of the primary bronchogenic carcinoma.

Key words: Bronchogenic carcinoma, radiological evaluation, CT scan






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