Clerodendrum myricoides is a Kenyan herbal plant used in management of respiratory diseases. In the current study, we investigated in-vitro antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Clerodendrum myricoides.
Materials and methods:
Antimicrobial activities of C. myricoides organic fractions against array of micro-organisms including: i) Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, ii) Staphylococcus aureus iii) Klebsiella pneumonia iv) Escherichia coli v) Candida albicans vi) Pseudomonas aeruginosa vii) Cryptococcus neoformans viii) Salmonella typhi ix) Shigella sonnei x) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by disc diffusion and micro dilution techniques. Antituberculous activity was investigated using BACTEC MGIT 960 system while cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay on HEp-2 cells. Finally, phytochemicals were screened using standard procedures.
Methanolic fractions exhibited a broad spectrum activity inhibiting 75% of test pathogens. It had highest activity with MIC values of ≤62.5 µg/ml recorded against 62.5% tested microbes. It yielded the highest zone of inhibition of 20.3 mm (S. aureus), lowest MIC of 90 µg/ml). The phytochemicals largely believed to be responsible for the observed activity included: alkaloid, phenols, anthraquinones, terpenoids and flavonoids.
Methanolic fraction had remarkable activity against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli, S. sonnei, C. albicans and MTB which are of public health concern due to drug resistance and as sources of community and nosocomial infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report exploring the antituberculous activity of C. myricoides and thence a major output in search of novel, safe drug leads to mitigate the global tuberculosis threat.
Key words: Clerodendrum myricoides, Tuberculosis, Cytotoxicity, Ethnopharmacology, Herbal medicine, Phytochemicals, Infectious diseases.