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Review Article

J App Pharm Sci. 2016; 6(9): 227-236

Pharmacotherapy of Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients: A Review

Sadhana Nittur Holla, Meena Kumari Kamal Kishore, Mohan Babu Amberkar.


With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, there has been a dramatic decrease in the morbidity and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Due to varying degree of immunosuppression, these patients are prone to various number of infections in their lifetime. Respiratory system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and the skin are the most susceptible for the organisms to be infected in opportunistic infections. Timely management of these microbial infections followed chemoprophylaxis is an important part of guidelines set for management of opportunistic infections in HIV. The development of drug toxicities and drug resistance in managing patients with HIV has always remained a clinical challenge. Consideration is given to the numerous known pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs used to treat and prevent opportunistic infections and antiretroviral drugs, and development of complications like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Clinicians must be knowledgeable about optimal strategies for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in order to improve health and to provide high quality of care for the patients.

Key words: AIDS, immunosuppression, antimicrobial therapy, IRIS, prophylaxis, drug interactions

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