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Original Research



Intraocular pressure changes in smokers and nonsmokers

Ganesh Kamble, Joya Rani D, Madhuri Taranikanti, Ratna Jyothi Meka.




Abstract

Background: Smoking is a known risk factor for several diseases and is a modifiable risk factor for several ocular diseases. Cigarette smoke contains toxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tar, carbon monoxide, and heavy metals. Nicotine is a psychoactive component of tobacco that can affect the eye causing cataracts and macular degeneration leading to loss of vision.

Objectives: To see the effects of tobacco smoke on the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure and to assess the visual acuity of smokers.

Materials and Methods: A total of 100 male participants between 40 and 60 years were included in the study of which 50 were controls who were nonsmokers and 50 participants grouped as cases had variable smoking history. A questionnaire was given to all participants to obtain information about smoking in terms of number of cigarettes smoked and duration (number of years). Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine their weight in Kg and height in cm. Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer to obtain both systolic and diastolic pressures. Normal blood pressure was considered as systolic blood pressure between 100 and 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure between 60 and 90 mmHg. Pulse rate and respiratory rate were also recorded. Examination of the eye was done to measure their visual acuity using a Snellen’s chart and intraocular pressure was measured using Schiotz tonometer.

Results: There was a statistically significant fall in visual acuity and a rise in intraocular pressure with p < 0.0001.

Conclusion: It is clear from the study that cigarette smoking causes systemic diseases general and ocular diseases in particular.

Key words: Smoking, intraocular pressure, visual acuity






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