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Amarkand: A comprehensive review on its ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects and taxonomy

Aarti Nilesh Narkhede, Deepak Mahadeo Kasote, Aniket Arun Kuvalekar, Abhay Madhukar Harsulkar, Suresh Dyandeo Jagtap.

Abstract
Background: In India, the term “Amarkand” is commonly used for around 30 different plant species belonging to genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae). This single local name Amarkand to different taxonomical species creates uncertainty about its ethnomedical and nutritional claims.
Aim: In present article, we have reviewed available literature regarding ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, taxonomy, nutritional and pharmacological studies of different Amarkand species.
Methodology: The literature was searched using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Some text books and reference books were also used to collect information about traditional and ethnopharmacological records.
Results and Discussion: Amarkand species have been used as a remedy for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhoea, stomach pain, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, sexual impotency, tuberculosis and so on. Nutritionally, Amarkand is considered as an excellent food for children and convalescents. Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species. These species are reported to possess various phyto-constituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids and phenanthrene derivatives. The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects and taxonomy of Amarkand species.

Key words: Amarkand, Ethno-botanical uses, Pharmacology, Phytochemistry


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