Introduction: Skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy in humans with a dramatic incidence increase in the past decade. One of the genes that may play a role in carcinogenesis is p53 gene. Mangosteen skin extract contains xanthone derivatives, such as α-, β-, and γ-mangostins, which are known to possess anticancer property. Despite its well documented use in other types of carcinoma, its effect in skin tumor carcinogenesis is still unknown.
Method: This experimental study was done in 30 mice randomly assigned into groups receiving different treatments. The positive control group received Dimethyl-Benz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a potent carcinogen, induction while the treatment groups received mangosteen skin extract with 100, 200, and 400 ppm concentrations. The protein p53 level from skin tumor in each mouse was assessed using ELISA.
Result: Protein p53 level was highest in the positive control group while the lowest value was shown by the group with 100 ppm extract application. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference across groups (p=0.000). Least significant difference post-hoc analysis showed a significantly lower protein p53 levels of both 100 ppm and 400 ppm mangosteen skin extract compared to the DMBA control group (p=0.000).
Conclusion: This study showed that topical application of mangosteen skin extract provided protective effect to skin tumor in mice, possibly through its antioxidant effects. This finding may expand potential future therapeutic options in treating skin cancers.
Key words: DMBA, mangosteen skin extract, p53, skin cancer