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Original Article

IJMDC. 2019; 3(1): 15-21

The pattern of acute heart failure as an emergency situation in Eastern Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Abdullah Alhashim, Hussain Shaker Almazyadi, Waleed Ibrahim Alshammari, Mohammed Yousif Alaissawi, Amina Abduljalil Hasan Abdulla, Ola Adel Mohammed, Mahdi Hussain Almubarak, Abdullah Yahya Alfaifi, Hassan Ali Alyousef, Maitham Saeed Alzaer, May Ebaidan Althibaiti.


Background: Acute heart failure (HF) is often a potentially life-threatening condition, and emergency treatment are aimed predominantly at managing fluid overload and hemodynamic compromise. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factor, manifestations and place of management of acute HF.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 studied populations attending the chronic diseases clinic of 5 randomly selected primary health care units, during the period of 1 March to 30 June 2018.
Results: This study found that 32.2% of participants had acute HF. According to causes of heart failure this study reported, hypertension was the most common cause by 89.2%, followed by coronary heart disease 75.7%, rheumatic valve diseases, cardiomyopathy 27%, myocarditis 24.3% and congenital heart disease 13.5%. As regard to the manifestations; general weakness 86.5%, dyspnea 81.1%, orthopnea 78.4%, chest pain 73%, tachycardia and palpitation 70.3%, loss of concentration 43.2%, breathlessness and cough with bloody sputum 35.1%, chest tightness and foamy sputum 27%. Acute HF was more prevalent among males (70.3%) without significant correlations (P>0.5). 59.5% of patients were more than 60 years. Most (51.4%) of cases attended the emergency room then the Critical Care Unit and 43.2% to the internal medicine department. 83.8% of cases have been compensated.
Conclusion: Acute HF was prevalent among chronically ill patients in Dammam and Al-Qatif cities, Eastern Saudi Arabia, more in males and elderly populations. Early and good control of hypertension and coronary heart diseases is recommended.

Key words: acute heart failure ;emergency situation, pattern

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