Five species of intracellular protozoa of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria in human. The present review briefly highlighted the critical roles of thiol-mediated antioxidant detoxification systems in the pathophysiology of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that are required for the survival of the malarial parasite in hyperoxidative intracellular environment. Scientific search engines such as PubMed, Pubget, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink were used to retrieve online publications from 1976 to 2015. Haemoglobin molecules that are taken up by the parasites’ acid food vacuoles lead to the spontaneous oxidation of haem iron from Fe2+ to Fe3+, formation of superoxide radicals (O2•âˆ’), and subsequently, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (•âˆ’OH), which are highly reactive and cytotoxic oxygen intermediates. Additionally, toxic haem (ferri/ferroprotoporhyrin IX (FPIX) that is released upon haemoglobin digestion is biomineralized to form inert haemozoin. P. falciparum reduced glutathione (PfGSH) is a cofactor for glutathione enzyme systems and mediates in direct reductive detoxification of the toxic byproduct of haemoglobin digestion-FPIX. The postulated role of P. falciparum glutathione S-transferase (PfGST) in the development of drug resistance in malarial parasites is still being controversially discussed. However, selective inhibition of PfGST and P. falciparum thioredoxin reductase (PfTrxR) identifies novel drug targets and potential chemotherapeutic strategy to combating malaria.
Erythrocyte; ferri/ferroprotoporhyrin IX; glutathione; thioredoxin; Plasmodium falciparum
Markers for Mitochondrial ROS Status.
Ostaszewska-Bugajska M, PodgÃ³rska A, Szal B
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022; 2363(): 199-213
Effects of hydrogen water treatment on antioxidant system of litchi fruit during the pericarp browning.
Yun Z, Gao H, Chen X, Chen Z, Zhang Z, Li T, Qu H, Jiang Y
Food chemistry. 2021; 336(): 127618
Complications of Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Orang Asli in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis.
Mat Salleh NH, Abdul Rahman MF, Samsusah S, De Silva JR, Tan JH, Amir A, Lau YL
Tropical biomedicine. 2021; 38(1): 33-35
Differential Effect of Antioxidants Glutathione and Vitamin C on the Hepatic Injuries Induced by ANKA Infection.
Kauffmann N, da Penha LKRL, Braga DV, AtaÃde BJA, Mendes NSF, de Sousa LP, da Souza GS, Passos ACF, Batista EJO, Herculano AM, Oliveira KRHM
BioMed research international. 2021; 2021(): 9694508
Relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and HPV infection: a systematic review.
Bortolli APR, Vieira VK, Stefanski EE, Lazarotto AK, Lucio LC
Molecular biology reports. 2021; ():