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A study of etiological factors, management, and complications of atrophic rhinitis

Rakesh Sheth, Vikram Patel, Vipul M Patel, Chiman S Gohil.

Abstract
Background: Atrophic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic nasal disease that is characterized by progressive atrophy of the nasal mucosa and underlying bone of the turbinates. The etiological factors blamed for its genesis are specific infections, autoimmunity, chronic sinus infection, hormonal imbalance, poor nutritional status, heredity, and iron deficiency anemia. Although its prevalence is in increasing trend, the study of clinical cases of the AR is found very much less.

Objectives: To throw light on the etiology and the various modalities of the management and complications.

Materials and Methods: A prospective study carried out for 2 years enrolled a total of 41 cases. The detailed study of each case of AR was carried out and data were recorded in the preformed case record form. Participants were grouped in one of the three treatment plan groups. They were followed for 6 months for the response of the treatment and the complications.

Result: Maximum incidence of AR was seen in the age group of 4150 years (24.4%). It was common in women (65.9%) than in men (34.15%). The etiological factors showed 77% idiopathic type, and others were secondary to other diseases such as chronic sinusitis (12.5%), tuberculosis (7.5%), and leprosy (4.9%). The most common symptoms were crusting (100%) and fetor (97.6%). Investigations showed that 73.2% participants had hemoglobin level below 10 g% and 90% had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The majority of the participants managed with injection placentrex and surgery showed good response on follow-up.

Conclusion: No specific etiological factor is known for AR but possibly more than one factor is responsible for etiology. More prevalent in the people of lower socioeconomic status. Conservative treatment is acceptable, harmless, cheap, and effective line of treatment and can be taken as most effective approach. Maintenance of hygiene, balanced diet, avoidance of snuff inhalation, and smoking, as well as early diagnosis and prompt treatment of any nasal pathology can prevent the AR.

Key words: Atrophic rhinitis, etiological factors, management, complications



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