Background: Slum settlements have been a major cause for concern for urban planners of the city, which has the highest growth rate of over 13% in the country. A total of 6 lakh urban poor living in 1.15 lakh hutments in 406 slum settlements in the city need to be relocated by 2020 by Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) in the economically weaker section (EWS) houses. This study, a kind of studying and documenting the process of resettlement of slum dwellers to newer sites and to newer styles, has surely raised a number of sociocultural, economical, managerial, administrative, and political issues as occurred elsewhere.
Objective: To study the effects on livelihood and related factors after resettlement from unacceptable and illegal slums to EWS AWAS constructed under JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission) by SMC.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to March 2013. List of all beneficiaries available on website of slum upgradation cell of SMC was obtained. Using simple random sampling, 148 beneficiaries were interviewed using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by using summary statistics such as proportion, mean, median, standard deviation, and range.
Result: Majority of the AWAS (dwelling) constructed were at distance from walled city area. Mean income of responsible respondent was Rupees 4,061. Mean distance to be traveled to reach the site of job has increased twice when compared with previous stay at slums, and expense to reach the site of job has increased more than thrice. Time spent for transportation to reach the site of job has also increased to more than half an hour. Expense toward annual electricity bill, house bill, rent/equated monthly installment, and maintenance has increased more than twice after resettlement.
Conclusion: Shifting to AWAS from slum of origin did not result into financial gain but an improved and dignified living for the whole family. Slum dwellers shifted to distant relocated sites required to pay more for commutation, spare more time for transportation, and have become dependent on shared auto-rickshaw system. These people with restricted income have started paying for authorized services such as electricity, drinking water, garbage and solid waste disposal, and legally constructed reinforce cement concrete structure for accommodation.
Economically weaker section AWAS, Surat Municipal Corporation, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Slum upgradation