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Original Article

J. Islam. Int. Med. Coll.. 2016; 11(1): 16-17


Frequency of Different Risk Factors of Autism Spectrum Disease: A Multicentre Comparative Study

Saira Jahan, Zahra Arshad, Sana Nasir Zaidi, Imran Amjad.

Abstract
Background:Autism is a general expression used to illustrate an assemblage of complex neurodevelopment disorders also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a collection of developmental disabilities characterized by unusual and atypical development in socialization believe and incorporate behavior and communication. Symptoms of ASDs are present before age 3 years and frequently are accompanied by abnormalities and difficulty in learning, cognitive functioning, sensory processing and attention.
Objectives:The objective of our study is to determine and establish the risk factors generally involved in autism and to specifically determine prenatal risk factors like stress, vitamin D deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and parental age in twin cities.
Material and Methods: It was a case control study conducted from February 2014 to January 2015. Two groups of children participated in the study, one with diagnosed case of autism ASD (n=101) aged between 3 to 10 years and the other one is control group (n=233) without any co morbidities like neurological, musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary conditions. The data was collected from twin cities with the help of self designedstructured questionnaire, questions were first explained and asked to parents of autistic children and then filled by study authors themselves and the data was analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Vs 20.
Results: Over 30 risk factors have been examined. Out of 334 children, 67.3% cases were males and 32.6% cases were females. The factors associated with autism risk in the case control study were male gender, advanced fatherís age at child birth, severe iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, vitamin D deficiency, motherís suffering from hypothyroidism, asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity, high stress level in mothers during pregnancy, C-section procedure, children born in springs and winters, more used of valporoic acid, antidepressants and antibiotics in mothers, infection during pregnancy, no or minimum exposure of sunlight during pregnancy, premature birth, Meconium aspiration syndrome and late cry, blood group incompatibility with mothers and Rh incompatibility between mothers and fathers.
Conclusion: Prenatal risk factors like stress, vitamin D deficiency, iron deficiency, hypothyroidism, obesity, diabetes, blood group incompatibility with mothers, children born in spring and c section are the strong causes to develop autism in children.

Key words: Autism, Neuro developmental Disorder, Risk Factors



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