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Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ((Stapf) Th. & H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

Lydia Francisca Otoo, George Asumeng Koffuor, Charles Ansah, Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Charles Benneh, Inemesit Okon Ben.

Abstract
Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Methodology: The size and length of the combs of White leghorn day-old chicks treated with Testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), Cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as Cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on Testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the Chick Comb Test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17- β-estradiol (0.1-0.9 g), PNE (30-300 mg/kg) or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function, was well lipid and haematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: Seven-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P≤0.01-0.001), while Cyproterone significantly decreased (P≤0.001) comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P≤0.001) of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P≤0.001). Administration of 17- β oestradiol and PNE increased (P≤0.001) oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed on assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile and haematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist) and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use.

Key words: Androgenic effect; Estrogenic activity; Libido; Partial agonist; Testosterone


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