Objective: Timely recognition and optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) and residual vascular risk (RVR) in family medicine. Background: The global increase of the incidence of obesity is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of many metabolic and lipoprotein disorders, in particular AD, as an typical feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2. AD is an important factor in cardio metabolic risk, and is characterized by a lipoprotein profile with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), high levels of triglycerides (TG) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Standard cardiometabolic risk assessment using the Framingham risk score and standard treatment with statins is usually sufficient, but not always that effective, because it does not reduce RVR that is attributed to elevated TG and reduced HDL cholesterol. RVR is subject to reduction through lifestyle changes or by pharmacological interventions. In some studies it was concluded that dietary interventions should aim to reduce the intake of calories, simple carbohydrates and saturated fats, with the goal of reaching cardiometabolic suitability, rather than weight reduction. Other studies have found that the reduction of carbohydrates in the diet or weight loss can alleviate AD changes, while changes in intake of total or saturated fat had no significant influence. In our presented case, a lifestyle change was advised as a suitable diet with reduced intake of carbohydrates and a moderate physical activity of walking for at least 180 minutes per week, with an recommendation for daily intake of calories alignment with the total daily (24-hour) energy expenditure (24-EE), depending on the degree of physical activity, type of food and the current health condition. Such lifestyle changes together with combined medical therapy with Statins, Fibrates and Omega-3 fatty acids, resulted in significant improvement in atherogenic lipid parameters. Conclusion: Unsuitable atherogenic nutrition and insufficient physical activity are the new risk factors characteristic for AD. Nutritional interventions such as diet with reduced intake of carbohydrates and calories, moderate physical activity, combined with pharmacotherapy can improve atherogenic dyslipidemic profile and lead to loss of weight. Although one gram of fat release twice more kilo calories compared to carbohydrates, carbohydrates seems to have a greater atherogenic potential, which should be explored in future.
atherogenic dyslipidemia, residual vascular risk, lifestyle changes, statins, fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids