Objective: Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by the Chikungunya virus, belonging to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. In Kerala the first Chikungunya outbreak occurred in 2006 affecting 14 districts. The re-emergence of the disease occurred in Kozhikode district in Kerala in May 2009. A survey was undertaken in Panangad village, which was the worst affected location. The aim of the survey was to understand the nature and magnitude of the Chikungunya fever, the clinical signs and symptoms.
Methods: A total number of 436 cases were surveyed door to door in 7 different localities in the Panangad village of Balussery of Kozhikode district. The patient history, clinical signs and symptoms of the Chikungunya cases were recorded. The signs and symptoms recorded consisted of fever, chills, arthalgia, eye pain, back pain, headache, edema, rash, oral ulcers, hyperpigmentation, itch, myalgia, sore throat, distaste, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, hypotension, dermatitis, and dizziness.
Results: The major symptoms were fever (100%), arthralgia (81.65%), and myalgia (77.98%). Significant differences were observed in the following symptoms: chills (15.36%), eye pain (7.56%), back pain (30.96%), headache (41.28%), edema (50.68%), rash (29.58%), oral ulcer (14.9%), itch (42.88%), hyperpigmentation (4.58%), sore throat (8.71%), distaste (6.88%), nausea (6.65%), vomiting (12.61%), diarrhea (1.37%), neck pain (0.91%), and dizziness (3.21%). The Chikungunya cases were more severely affected with more or less all of the above mentioned symptoms in the higher age group (>45 years) compared to the lower age group (1-30 years).
Conclusion: Chikungunya was found to be the major vector born disease in Kerala state. The major clinical symptoms in affected cases were fever, edema, myalgia, and arthralgia.
Chikungunya; India; Outbreak; Symptoms