Objective: We investigated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish for the first time.
Methods: Anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus; AFRS) was selectively extracted by employment of polymeric ion-exchange resin. AFRS was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (control) received vehicle. Group II (drug control) received AFRS. Group III (toxicant) received CCl4. Group IV, V and VI received AFRS at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg po, respectively. Group VII (standard) received silymarin. Various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) levels in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver were also studied. The activity of AFRS was compared with the reference drug silymarin.
Results: The yield of AFRS was found to be 0.084% (w/w). AFRS treated group did not show any significant change in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, MDA and GSH level compared to control group. CCl4 significantly raised the serum level of all biochemical parameters (except GSH) in the toxicant group. The pre-treatment of AFRS for seven days had reversed the alteration of biochemical parameters towards normal, and the effects were comparable to standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg). The animals received pre-treatment of AFRS showed amelioration in necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins fraction isolated from Raphanus sativus and thus scientifically supports the usage of it as food colorant and also justifies the use of the crude extracts of radish to treat various liver ailments in Indian folk medicine.
Key words: Anthocyanins; Antioxidant; Carbon tetrachloride; Hepatoprotective; Red radish; Silymarin