Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, an anaerobic Gram-positive microorganism. Pelvic actinomycosis is rare and constitutes 3% of all human actinomycosis infections. Pre-operative diagnosis is usually difficult with the majority of cases being diagnosed after the histological and bacteriological examination of the resected specimen. In this paper, the authors report a new case of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis in a 42-year-old woman that was misdiagnosed pre-operatively as ovarian malignancy. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis should be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intra-uterine devices. Surgeons should be aware of this infection in order to avoid excessive surgical procedures.
actinomycosis, ovary, fallopian tube, intra-uterine device