Objective: To determine the histomorphogical effects of radiations from conventional and advanced mobile
phones on the developing kidney of chick embryo.
Study Design: Randomized Control Trial.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Army Medical College, (NUST), Rawalpindi, Pakistan
from January 30, 2012 to January 30, 2013.
Materials and Methods: Fifty fertilized, zero day, off white colored eggs of Fayoumi breed were selected
according to inclusion criteria. Two groups II and IV were exposed to conventional mobile phone radiations, and
two groups III and V were exposed to advanced mobile phone radiations for 15 and 30 minutes per 24 hours
respectively. Group I was the control. The data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and, ANOVA test was applied to
determine statistical significance.
Results: The mean proximal and distal tubular diameters were decreased in the experimental groups. The
mean proximal tubular diameter decreased significantly when comparing group I with groups II, III, IV and V and
no statistical significance was found when comparing the experimental groups.
The mean proximal luminal diameter decreased in experimental groups with statistically significant result
between groups I and III and between I and V showing that the effects were more in advanced cell phone groups
when compared with the control.
Regarding distal tubular diameter the results were statistically significant between I and III, II and III and II and IV.
Mean distal luminal diameter decreased in the experimental groups with statistically significant result when
comparing II and IV and, IV and V. The distal tubules responded to either the increase in the time of exposure
from 15 to 30 minutes or when the chick embryo was exposed to advanced cell phone radiations as the results
were more significant between the experimental groups, where p
Mobile Phones, Chick Embryo, Metanephros.