Gender differences are increasingly recognized in cardiology. It is also well known that women have a higher complications and a higher mortality related to coronary procedures. In arrhythmias, gender-specific variations in the electrophysiological structure of the heart or hormonal effects may explain some of the gender differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate gender differences according to their risk factors, indications and modes of pacing. A total of 267 patients who had pacemaker implantation for bradyarrhythmia indications were enrolled in our study. A pre-designed questionnaire was filled to record their baseline characteristics, clinical indications and mode of pacing. Out of 267 patients 190 were male and 77 were female. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) The pacemaker implantation requirement was 31% significantly lower among males compared with females who were hypertensive (RR=0.69, 95%CI=0.58-0.82, p=0.0001) and 1.57 times (RR=1.57, 95%CI=1.32-1.87, p=0.0001) significantly higher among male patients than females who were the tobacco user in any form. The single chamber requirement was 1.41 times significantly (RR=1.41, 95%CI=1.16-1.71, p=0.0001) higher in males than females. The risk analysis showed that complete heart blockage (p= 0.02) and sick sinus syndrome (p= 0.01) were significantly higher in male as compared with female. In conclusion male patients had more CHB, sick sinus syndrome and syncope as primary pacemaker indication, compared with female patients. Smoking is the most prominent risk factor in male and hypertension in female and most importantly there were significant gender differences in indications leading to pacing.
Bradyarrhythmia; Pacemaker implantation; Gender; Pacing Indications; Pacing Modes.