The present study was designed to investigate oxidative stress of aluminium (Al)-induced brain toxicity in rats and extended to investigate the possible ameliorating role of Omega -3 fatty acids. Forty eight male albino rats weighing 130 ± 10 g BW were assigned to 8 groups (6 each) as follows: normal control group; AlCl3 group (100 mg /kg BW); wheat germ oil group, Omega-3 low or high doses. The three other groups were given AlCl3 in addition to wheat germ oil, Omega -3 low dose or Omega -3 high dose respectively. Rats were administered their respective dose daily, for 90 days (6 days a week). The results revealed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly increased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (Co) and hippocampus (Hip) of rats intoxicated with AlCl3. Moreover, the lipid profile; total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly increased in serum and the mentioned brain regions, while the levels of phospholipids (PL), total protein (TP) and serum HDL-C were significantly decreased in AlCl3 group. Additionally, serum and brain alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities were significantly increased. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, Omega -3 when given in low or high dose along with AlCl3 was able to ameliorate the mentioned parameters in dose relating manner approaching them to the normal ranges. It can be concluded that Al neurotoxicity may be attributed to Al-induced oxidative stress and inhibition of the antioxidant system, and consequently to the impaired lipid profile, total protein and enzyme activities. Furthermore, the results suggested that the Omega-3 in particular the high dose could be able to antagonize Al neurotoxicity perhaps by its antioxidant properties.
Key words: Aluminium chloride, Alzheimers disease, Omega-3, oxidative stress, Antioxidants.