The present work aimed to study the effect of crude extracts of two type of truffles (black and white) on leukemic patients; acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML), and chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML) using cytogenetic markers (mitotic index and blast index) as indicators. The percentages of mitotic index (MI) and blast index (BI) were decreased in ALL leukemic patients; they were 1.99% and 25.92%, respectively in the untreated blood lymphocyte and decreased to 0.92% and 15.46%, respectively in those treated with white truffle. While in AML, the percentages of MI and BI were 3.15% and 0.04%, respectively in untreated blood lymphocyte cells and decreased to 0.61% and 20.03%, respectively in the cells treated with crude extract of white truffle. The same with CML patients where they were 2.68% and 40.0%, respectively in the untreated cells and decreased to 1.61% and 24.08%, respectively in the treated ones. The patient treated with black truffle crude extract showed decreases in both parameters, these were in ALL patients 2.99% and 37.69% in untreated cells and decreased to 0.4% and 22.69%, respectively in treated cells. While in AML patients, the percentages of MI and BI were 1.93% and 28.22%, respectively in the untreated cells and decreased to 0.36% and 22.28%, respectively in the cell treated with crude extract of black truffle. In patients with CML, they also show the same effect in their response to the markers, the percentages of MI and BI were 3.2% and 34.93% in the untreated cells and decreased to 1.32% and 28.28%, respectively in the treated cells. These results provoke to study the active components of the extract and to synthesize new drugs related to cancer therapy or to fellow the disease progress and to study the response of tumour cells to certain drugs. In conclusion, the extracts of the two types of truffles (black and white truffle) have cytotoxic and synergistic effects on leukemic cells as indicated by suppression of mitotic division and blast formation.
Key words: Cytogenetic analysis, black and white truffles, lymphocytes, leukemic patients