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Review Article

Zinc biofortification in Triticum aestivum L. – from grains to bakery products

Mara Palma Mourinho, Ines Maria Pataco, Karliana Oliveira, Cstia Santos, Joao Pelica, Jose Cochicho Ramalho, Antonio Eduardo Leitao, Isabel P. Pais, Paula Scotti Campos, Fernando Cebola Lidon, Fernando Henrique Reboredo, Maria Fernanda Pessoa.


Micronutrient deficiencies, namely those arising from zinc, pose serious human health problems. As a staple food crop, wheat is a major source of dietary energy and protein for the world's growing population, and a main target to reduce malnutrition via integration of agronomic fertilization practices. In this context, agronomic biofortification through fertilizer approaches, namely foliar application of Zn can increase grain Zn above the breeding target set by nutritionists. Nevertheless, zinc uptake and translocation, as well as milling yields and bioassimilation in the human intestinal mucosa must be also considered. This review synthesizes the progress made in the framework of the agronomic biofortification strategies for Zn enrichment of wheat, further considering the flour production and bioassimilation limitations.

Key words: Biofortification, Wheat flour, Zn absorption, Zinc application on plants, Zn bioavailability

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