Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of wheat landraces of Pakistan
Rabia Amir, Nasir M. Minhas, Alvina Gul Kazi, Sumaira Farrakh, Ahmad Ali, Hadi Bux, Mujeeb Kazi.
Wheat landraces represent a large reservoir of genetic variation of various traits. In this study 28 entries from a collection of 40 maintained in AARI, Faisalabad initially collected from northern Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan) were evaluated for their genetic diversity using microsatellite (SSR) primers. The 40 entries comprised of landraces and earlier local cultivars (C numbers) with all possessing a spring growth habit. Major phonological and biotic stress passport data is on record. The morphological examination of these entries showed that those designated as T2, T3 (Triticum durum), T7 (T. sphaerococcum), T18 (T. aestivum) C-217 (C-516xC-591) and C-258 were agronomically elite as to plant habit. SSR primers amplified total 122 bands out of which 83 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphism was 68%. XGWM-337 and XGWM-194 were found to be highly polymorphic. T7, T12 (T. aestivum) and C-258 were found to be genetically most diverse landraces using the SSR markers. The polymorphism indicator and phenology profile are the basis for selecting from these germplasm for adding diversity to wheat breeding programs nationally.
Key words: Triticum aestivum, Landraces, Simple Sequence Repeats, Genetic diversity, Phenology