Objective: The present in vitro studies aimed to investigate the pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects of crude aqueous extracts (AE) of Achillea santolina L, Eryngium creticum Lam, and Pistacia atlantica Desf utilized in Jordan diabetes ethnomedicine.
Methods: Bioassays of β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion as possible modes of action were recruited.
Results: Similar to L-alanine insulinotropic efficacy in MIN6 β-cell, glucose-stimulated Ca2+ regulated- insulin secretion was potentiated by AEs of E.creticum (0.01 mg/ml) and P.atlantica (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml). A.santolina AE, however, was found ineffective. Comparable to glucagon-like peptid-1-enhanced β-cell proliferation in 2-day treatment wells, a dose dependent augmentation of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was obtained with the A.santolina AE (0.05-1 mg/ml), and E.creticum AE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml). P.atlantica concentrations lacked pancreatic proliferative capacity. While A.santolina and E.creticum AEs proved inactive, P.atlantica inhibited dose dependently overnight glucose movement in vitro, as effectively as guar gum diffusional hindrance in a simple glucose dialysis model.
Conclusion: Current findings signify the in vitro diverse therapeutic antidiabetes properties of the selected medicinal plants. Future directives may assess the use of A.santolina, E.creticum and P.atlantica as new potential sources of functional foods or nutraceuticals or active leads into diabetes type 2 pharmacotherapy.
Key words: Achillea santolina; Eryngium creticum; Jordan; Glucose dialysis; MIN6 beta-cells; Pistacia atlantica