This study presents the genetic and environmental variations of essential oil and itssesquiterpene composition (/-/- ? -bisabololoxide A, /-/- ? -bisabololoxide B, /-/- ? -bisabolol andchamazulene) in natural growing chamomile population in Iran in comparison with the cultivars,which are cultivated in Egypt. The highest contents of /-/-?-bisabololoxide A, /-/-?-bisabolonoxide A and /-/-?-bisabololoxide B were typical for chamomile plants, which floweranthodia were collected in various places in Egypt. These results showed that, there is aBisabololoxide chemo type B of chamomile plants only. Contribution presents the results of thechamomile essential oil qualitative-quantitative characteristics of chemo types that are originatedfrom different geographical parts of the Iranian country. The Zagros Mountains, as a naturebarrier, divided the Chamomile populations: one to the Persian Gulf with the very high /-/-?-bisabolol content and one to the Alborz Mountains/Caspian Sea/ with the very high /-/-?-bisabololoxide A content. This Chamomile biodiversity on a relative small area was createdduring long time process (evolution) in regard to influence of eco-physiological conditions (bioticandabiotic- factors) on the concrete place of chamomile population growth.
Biodiversity, composition, essential oil, Matricaria recutita.