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Open Vet J. 2024; 14(5): 1081-1097

Brucellosis: Unveiling the complexities of a pervasive zoonotic disease and its global impacts

Aswin Rafif Khairullah, Shendy Canadya Kurniawan, Yulianna Puspitasari, Suhita Aryaloka, Otto Sahat Martua Silaen, Sheila Marty Yanestria, Agus Widodo, Ikechukwu Benjamin Moses, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Daniah Ashri Afnani, Sancaka Cashyer Ramandinianto, Abdullah Hasib, Katty Hendriana Priscilia Riwu.


One zoonotic infectious animal disease is brucellosis. The bacteria that cause brucellosis belong to the genus Brucella. Numerous animal and human species are affected by Brucellosis, with an estimated 500,000 human cases recorded annually worldwide. The occurrence of new areas of infection and the resurgence of infection in already infected areas indicate how dynamically Brucellosis is distributed throughout different geographic regions. Bacteria originate from the blood and are found in the reticuloendothelial system, the liver, the spleen, and numerous other locations, including the joints, kidneys, heart, and genital tract. Diagnosis of this disease can be done by Bacterial Isolation, Molecular tests, Modified acid-fast Stain, Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Milk Ring Test (MRT), Complement Fixation Test (CFT), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). The primary sign of a B. abortus infection is infertility, which can result in abortion and the birth of a frail fetus that may go on to infect other animals. In humans, the main symptoms are acute febrile illness, with or without localization signs, and chronic infection. Female cattle have a greater risk of contracting Brucella disease. Human populations at high risk of contracting brucellosis include those who care for cattle, veterinarians, slaughterhouse employees, and butchers. Antibiotic treatment of brucellosis is often unsuccessful due to the intracellular survival of Brucella and its adaptability in macrophages. A 'One Health' strategy is necessary to control illnesses like brucellosis.

Key words: Brucellosis, Zoonosis, Illness, Brucella abortus, Public health

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