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Original Article

J App Pharm Sci. 2015; 5(7): 060-063


Phytochemical, Pharmacognostic and Microscopic Analyses of the Leaves of Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker

Henry O. Egharevba, Jemilat A. Ibrahim, Grace Ezeh.

Abstract
Phytochemical, pharmarcognostic and microscopy analysis were carried out on the leaves of Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker in order to determine the secondary metabolites present in the plant and the pharmacognostic parameters and microscopic structures of the leaf of the plant. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, resins, balsams, alkaloid and phlobatannins and the absence of monosaccharide, combined reducing sugar, pentose sugar, ketoses, cardiac glycosides, sterols, flavonoids aglycone and anthraquinone. The pharmacognostic analysis for moisture content and extractive values showed moisture content of 7.4%, and alcohol and water extractive value of 23.00% and 22.67% respectively. Microscopic studies revealed the presence of anomocytic Stomata on the lower surface and absence of it on the upper surface. The thin layer chromatographic study showed 5 spots for the hexane extract, 4 spots for ethyl acetate extract, while the methanol extract gave 3 spots. The information obtained would be useful for the authentication of the plant leaf samples, and in development of monograph for the plant.

Key words: Clerodendrum polycephalum, Phytochemistry, Pharmacognosy, microscopy, TLC



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