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Self-monitoring of blood glucose among diabetic patients attending Al-Eskan Primary Health Care Center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah city

Deyaa Abdulla Mansouri, Hani Hasan Alawi, Khairyah Bakur Barasyn, Morouj Nizar Bnnounh, Nahlah Tulat Haddad, Dalia Awad Al-Hafdey, Ebtehal Zuhair Khayat.

Abstract
Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recognized by leading medical organizations as an important tool in diabetes management, particularly in insulin-treated patients. However, some believe the utility of SMBG in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of SMBG, its frequency, and influencing factors among diabetic patients attending Al-Eskan Primary Health Care Center, Makkah Al-Mukarramah city.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted including a representative sample of diabetic Patients attending Al-Eskan Primary Health Care Center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah city. Every third patient who attended for follow-up in the center was recruited in the research until the target number was achieved. Two sets of questionnaires were developed in English language and validated in a Malaysian study, and consequently used in the present study. One set of questionnaire was for diabetic patients who performed self-monitoring consisted of five parts; personal data, information about the patientís diabetes and treatment, the patientís perception regarding diabetes and his health, the patientís belief and attitudes toward SMBG, and the patientís current SMBG practices. Another set of questionnaire was for those who did not perform self-monitoring. It was similar except in part 4 where different statements were used to assess the patientís perception and attitude toward SMBG.

Results: The study included 120 patients with T2DM. The prevalence of SMBG among them was 70.8%. Among those who are practicing SMBG, 28.2% practiced it on daily basis whereas 10.6% practiced it more than once daily. Almost one third of them (35.3%) recorded their blood glucose monitoring results. Only 22.4% showed their results to their physicians and 25.9% adjusted their diabetes treatment based on blood glucose results. Sixty-nine respondents (57.5%) needed further help and information regarding diabetes with no significant association with SMBG practice. It was found that younger (‚ȧ50 years), male, married, and higher educated diabetic patients were more likely to practice SMBG, regardless of its frequency. All information related to diabetes (duration, therapy, complications, hospitalization, recent HbA1C, and attending educational sessions) was not significantly associated with SMBG practice.

Conclusion: SMBG is widely used among patients with T2DM in Al-Eskan Primary Health Care Center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah city. However, its frequency and timing is suboptimal. As younger (‚ȧ50 years), male, married, and higher educated diabetic patients were more likely to practice SMBG.

Key words: Self-monitor blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, type 2 diabetes, Saudi Arabia



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