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Review Article

IJMDC. 2024; 8(1): 432-437

Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for hypertension: a systematic review

Moawad Eid Al-Otaibi, Mohammad Abdullah Alotaibi, Ibrahim Ali Almehaidib, Mohammed Abdullah Alsharqi, Mohammed Difallah A. Alzahrani, Abdullah Sulieman Alhenaki, Abdullah Fahad Alsaif.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a progressively sleep-disordered breathing condition marked by bouts of upper airway obstruction during sleep. This systematic review aimed to comprehensively explore the lately available literature on OSA as an independent risk factor for developing hypertension (HTN). PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant literature. Rayyan QRCI was employed throughout this comprehensive process. This review included eight studies with a total of 12,473 parents, and 8,974 (71.9%) males. The total frequency of HTN in OSA cases was 5,643 (45.2%). The prevalence of HTN was rather high in OSA patients. Obesity and elevated bicarbonate levels were cofactors in the development of HTN in OSA patients. Children with OSA were three times more likely to develop HTN in the future. A growing number of OSA patients had or required HTN treatment. If treatment is not received, the patient becomes more vulnerable to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as a result of a self-perpetuating pathophysiological process. Even though there is a lot of research and strategies available for OSA cases who necessitate blood pressure decline, further choices are critically needed.

Key words: Obstructive sleep apnea; Hypertension; Hypoxia; Systematic review

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